1. 分詞構文(1)…現在分詞を用いる場合
    a. She lived with a number of families, taking care of their children and doing work around the house.
    b. Smiling happily, the girl came out of the room.
    c. Living in the outback, those children do not go to school.
    d. Sitting near the fire, you can keep warm on a cold winter evening.
  2. S + wish + 仮定方過去…実現不可能な願望を表す
    a. I wish (that) I had a little sister.
    b. The little boy wishes ( that) he was [were] a magician.
    c. She wished that she could paint the scene.
  3. 倒置(1)…目的語を文頭に出した場合
    a. What she knew about painting, she taught herself.
    cf. She taught herself what she knew about painting.
    b. This sentence in his letter we cannot understand.
    cf. Among them were Europeans and Arabs.