1. S + V + O(=疑問詞 +  to do)
    a. They learned how to use a parachute.
    b. I did not know what to say to her at that time.
  2. S + V + O(=if[whether]で始まる節)
    a. I wonder if[whether] she enjoyed the concert.
    b. Do you know if the bank is open today?
    a’. Did she enjoy the concert?
  3. 3.S + V + O + C(=形容詞)
    a. I found the fish fresh and delicious.
    b. They soon proved all the fears groundless.
    a’. The fish was fresh and delicious.
  4. 4.現在完了:have[has] + 過去分詞
    a. I have already read today’s paper.
    b. Have you ever seen skydiving?
    c. We have known each other for about ten years.
  5. 5.過去完:had + 過去分詞
    a. When the parachute finally opened, he had fallen 2,000 feet!
    b. She had never seen snow before she came to Japan.