1. It seems [appears, happens] + thatで始まる節
    a. It seems that my own escape is hardly complete.
    cf. My own escape seems (to be) hardly complete.
    b. It appeared that Tom was really interested in visiting Kamakura.
    c. It happened that Mary sat next to me on the bus.
  2. 過去完了進行形:had been -ing
    a. He had been standing in front of the house until she came back.
    b. Before that workers had been living in harmony with the seasons.
  3. 倒置(2)…否定語を文頭に出した場合
    a. Not until the fifteenth century did clocks begin to rival churches in the city squares.
    b. Never had I seen snow until I came to Japan.
  4. 関係副詞whenの省略
    a. The time (when) my vacation will end is already decided.
    b. Monday is the day (when) she is the busiest.
  5. 未来完了形:will have + 過去分詞
    a. By tomorrow the mark will have disappeared.
    b. In another year or so, you will have forgotten all about him.