1. S + V + O(=疑問視で始まる節)
    a. Do you know when he came to Sapporo?
    cf. When did he come to Sapporo?
    b. I wondered why he looked like a Japanese.
    c. The girls did not say who was the oldest.
  2. It is … (for~) to do
    a. It is nice to spend a holiday by a beautiful lake like this.
    b. It was difficult for Bill to get used to Japanese food.
    c. It is not safe for children to play in that water.
  3. 関係代名詞(who, whose, which, that)
    a.The room was full of young people who came from Asian countries.
    b. I saw a young man whose costume looked like a Japanese kimono.
    c. The music box (which[that]) she bought in Italy is really beautiful.
  4. 現在分詞の形容詞的用法
    a. I love the sound of falling rain.
    b. The women wearing colorful saris were from India.
    cf. The women who were wearing colorful saris were from India.